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Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is a stimulant of the cathinone class which acts as a Norepinephrine–dopamine reuptake inhibitor (NDRI). It was first developed in the 1960s by a team at Boehringer Ingelheim. Its activity at the dopamine transporter is six times stronger than at the norepinephrine transporter and it is virtually inactive at the serotonin transporter. MDPV remained an obscure stimulant until around 2004 when it was reportedly sold as a designer drug. Until banned in 2011, products containing MDPV and labeled as bath salts were sold as recreational drugs in gas stations and convenience stores in the United States, similar to the marketing for Spice and K2 as incense.
The hydrochloride salt exists as a very fine crystalline powder; it is hygroscopic and thus tends to form clumps, resembling something like powdered sugar. Its color can range from pure white to a yellowish-tan and has a slight odor that strengthens as it colors. Impurities are likely to consist of either pyrrolidine or alpha-dibrominated alkylphenones—respectively, from either excess pyrrolidine or incomplete amination during synthesis. These impurities likely account for its discoloration and fishy (pyrrolidine) or bromine-like odor, which worsens upon exposure to air, moisture, or bases.